معمل الالكترونيات الحيوية :

يهدف المعمل الى اكساب الطالب المهارات العملية في التعامل مع الالكترونيات الحيوية من حيث التصميم والمحاكاة وتتبع الاخطاء.

المواد التي تدرس في المعمل :

معمل الكترونيات بيو طبية 1 لطلاب المستوى الثالث

معمل الكترونيات بيو طبية 2 لطلاب المستوى الثالث

 اسماء لوحات التجارب الموجودة بالمعمل 

1- لوحة التجارب الخاصة باكتساب ومعالجة الاشارة الحيوية

2- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بالرسم البياني

3- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بالعلاج الطبيعي والاشارات المحفزة

4- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بمحولات الطاقة الحيوية

5- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بالالياف الضوئية والالكترونيات الضوئية

6- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بمقاييس نسبة التنفس


 1- لوحة التجارب الخاصة باكتساب ومعالجة الاشارة الحيوية

بوردة 1



The detection and interpretation of signals coming from thehuman body is certainly one of the most important aspectin the sector of biomedical instruments. These signals aredetected by appropriate transducers and enable to diagnosethe functioning of the various organs in the human body.The circuits under examination are parts of equipment usedin cardiology, surgery, neurology, medicine and intensive careThe module enables the basic study and application ofbiomedical signals and their processing.


• ECG signals

• Electrodes for ECG signals

• Amplifi cation and fi ltering of ECG signals

• Common-mode noise rejection

• Noise and artefacts

• Safety power supply units and insulation circuits

• Detecting the connection failure of electrodes (Lead-fail


• Electrical protection for the input lines of electrodes

• EEG signals and amplifi cation

• EMG signals and amplifi cation

• Galvanic insulation (photo decoupling) between patient and

instruments’ references

• Signal calibration before acquisition

2- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بالرسم البياني 

بوردة 2


Most biomedical instruments include a printing unit to

provide users with the data resulting from the detection

of physiological parameters or from other measurements

carried out on patients. Generally this information consists

 electroencephalogram, electromyography, etcof the graphic representation concerning electrocardiogram

The printing instruments used for this operation are called

PEN RECORDERS. But the application of microprocessor units

enables a lot of instruments of recent design to use digital

recorders almost exclusively, consequently the printing unit is

included in most biomedical instruments.

Studying this section is very important to know the operating

principles,the signals and the typical electronic equipment

used. This module is designed to study and apply the basics of

graphic recording used in biomedical equipment.


Printing of biomedical signals

Pen recorders

Structure of a thermal printer

Printing onto roll chart

Roll feeding unit

Printing system

Interface to microprocessor

• Checking signals


 لوحة التجارب الخاصة بالعلاج الطبيعي والاشارات المحفزة  - 3

بوردة 3


Aim of this module consists in analyzing the circuits and

instruments used when specifi c organs of the body must be


Most apparatuses adopting these techniques are included

in the biomedical instruments typically used in the fi elds of

physiotherapeutic medicine and of limbs rehabilitation and

reeducation after long immobility periods.

This module examines the following topics:

Basic circuits of defi brillators (production of special high/

low intensity shocks applied to patients’ heart), used also in

pathophysiology in case of particular heart dysfunctions to

be corrected.

Instruments for electrostimulation: equipment used for

therapeutical treatments based on excitation through

electronic stimulation of nervous tissues and muscles, or for

anaesthetic effects.

Instruments of magnetotherapy based on the application

of low frequency and intensity signals to obtain therapeutic

effects in case of sprains, arthrosis and arthritis, sinusitis,

ulcers, lancet wounds, etc

Ultrasound instruments: based on ultrasound energy

generated by the oscillations of quartz transducers

at particular frequencies above audible sounds. The

therapeutical effects of ultrasounds regard the temperature

increase in tissues and cavities, for example, for the

microcirculation of gas bubbles in tissues.



Charging/discharging electrical energy

Storing energy

Hand check

Synchronization with ECG


لوحة التجارب الخاصة بمحولات الطاقة الحيوية   - 4



The measurement of physiological variables is very important

in both diagnosis and therapy; this has led to a continuous

evolution of sensors and transducers and of the procedures

for using recorded information. Among these instruments,

sensors and transducers of temperature, fl ow and of pressure

have become particularly important; they provide an analog

electric input that indicates the physical variables detected in

different physiological instruments.

But the effective use of this electrical information requires

some system of electronic interface for connecting transducers

with instruments: these circuits are commonly defined “signal

conditioners” and they provide an output with voltage variable

value in standard ranges not depending on sensor type.

The fi rst part of the circuit enables to measure the different

sensors, whereas the second part provides a standard output

voltage in a variable range, usually between 0 and +8 Vdc or

10 Vdc, that is the best range to be used by the corresponding

process instruments.

The module enables to study and apply the basics of transducers

used in biomedical equipment.


Signal conditioners

Temperature transducers

- Measurement and accuracy range

- Stability

-Characteristics of temperature / resistance of PTCO

Pressure transducers

- Systolic and diastolic blood pressure

- Measurement of blood pressure

- Bernoulli effect

- Piezoelectric sensors

- Measurement bridges

Measurement of respiration

- FVC, PEF, PIF, RV, FEV parameters

- Volume – fl ow rate diagram

- Flow rate sensors

- Thermistor Sensors





The applications of optoelectronic devices in medicine are very wide. A lot of instruments of analysis laboratory operate on the basis of the different light absorption capacity of an analyzed substance or solution, according to the various constituent substances. It is possible to determine their concentration by induced or automatic procedures. The instrumentsapplying these principles are photometers, colorimeters and

spectrophotometers. Moreover, optical fi bers are used in endoscopes, in devices forlighting internal organs and tissues, and in other applications

where fi bers are used to transfer signals (ECG, EEG, …) with complete electronic decoupling. The module enables to study and apply the basics of opticalfibers and optoelectronic components used in biomedicalequipment


Light radiation and measurement of its intensity

Optoelectronic devices: LED (Light Emitting Diodes), liquid

crystals and laser

Optoelectronic photodetectors

Opto-coupling systems

Light and measurement transducers

Optical fi bers

• Light transmission on optical fi bers

بوردة 5


6- لوحة التجارب الخاصة بمقاييس نسبة التنفس

بوردة 4 


The module enables to acquire the cardiac rhythm by using apair of optical transceiver transducers.As the patient introduces a fi nger in the optical path, the cardiacrhythm is automatically recorded and displayed on a two-digitscreen. It is also possible to record the respiratory rhythm ina non-invasive way by using a temperature transducer placedbefore the patient’s mouth. The minimum and maximum valuescan be set as parameters in the acquisition section to detectalarm situations (MIN-MAX interval).


The circulatory system

The respiratory system

Transducers and actuators

Immunity to radiative noises

Event counter with time delays

Filters and amplifi cation

Comparing the frequency of measured events (heartbeat

and respiratory acts)

Thresholds, intervals and min./max. limits

Thresholds and alarms

• Display

بورة 6


مهندس المعمل: م. عمر شامي 

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